Bowel cancer (usually referred to as colorectal cancer) is the third most common cancer in the world, second only to lung cancer and breast cancer. And in recent years, more and more young people have bowel cancer, making early screening of cancer more and more important.
From 2004 to 2015, more than 130,000 cases of bowel cancer were diagnosed in people under the age of 50 in the United States. The medical and scientific communities agree that the problem of rising colorectal cancer among young people must be addressed. Experts say that as research progresses, we must provide screening options for people with or developing colorectal cancer and precancerous lesions, with the goal of increasing the screening rate and preventing the rise of colorectal cancer among young people.
In May 2018, the American Cancer Society (ACS) updated its colorectal cancer screening guidelines, adding that people aged 45 to 49 should also be screened; its previous ACS recommendation was to screen at the age of 50.
Bowel cancer screening
Recently, the FDA expanded the approval of Cologuard for non-invasive colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test to include qualified high-risk groups ≥45 years of age.
The latest indications based on fecal home screening analysis apply to 19 million average-risk individuals between approximately 45-49 years of age in the United States. Previously, Cologuard was approved for people ≥50 years of age.
Cologuard uses multiple biomarkers to analyze 10 DNA markers in a single stool sample, such as methylated BMP3 and NDRG4 promoter regions, KRAS mutations and β-actin and hemoglobin.
Kevin Conroy, chairman and CEO of Cologuard manufacturer Exact Sciences, said in a press release: “Cologuard technology has been used to screen colorectal cancer for approximately 3 million people, and nearly half of them have not been screened before. With the FDA’s approval of Cologuard for the 45-49 age group, this sensitive, non-invasive screening option has the potential to help resist the rise in colorectal cancer incidence in this young population. “
Bowel cancer self-examination-please pay attention to the five dangerous symptoms
These five symptoms appear in the body. Eight out of nine are early stage of bowel cancer. It is best to check it!
01. Changes in bowel habits
Frequent increased bowel movements or constipation, and sometimes constipation and diarrhea alternately, you must be alert to bowel cancer.
02. Bloody stools
The blood in the stool caused by hemorrhoids is spray-like or drop-shaped blood, and the blood in the stool caused by intestinal cancer is dark red with mucus, which must be learned to distinguish.
03. Digestive symptoms
Digestive system symptoms caused by intestinal cancer generally manifest as abdominal distension, indigestion, etc. Most of the painful areas are in the middle and lower abdomen, to a lesser or greater degree, mainly due to intestinal obstruction.
04. Defecation deformation
Bowel cancer can also cause stool deformation, which can be thin rod-shaped, flat-belt-shaped or brownish stool. Therefore, it is important to take a look at yourself after going to the toilet, which is very important for discovering your condition in time.
05, emerge urgently
Bowel cancer can cause an increase in the number of bowel movements, and it can also be accompanied by feelings of endless bowel movements and urgency, which means that your bowel is uncomfortable, and you want to go to the toilet again, but you can’t pull things out and fall down.
How to stay away from colorectal cancer?
Today, intestinal cancer, gastric cancer, and esophageal cancer are gastrointestinal tumors with a high incidence, and are closely related to the accelerated pace of modern life and the increasingly rich diet. But how can we prevent bowel cancer and reduce the incidence of bowel cancer?
Eat the right amount at the right time
The occurrence of bowel cancer is closely related to dietary habits. Particular attention should be paid to dinner. Modern young people are under pressure to work and live. They often work overtime to stay up late, eat dinner late, eat too much, and sometimes have supper. This is an unhealthy diet. Sleeping after eating can easily lead to incomplete digestion, a large accumulation of harmful substances, and increased risk of cancer.
Eat more whole grains, vegetables, fruits and vegetables rich in dietary fiber, and this fiber can increase intestinal peristalsis, the intestinal peristalsis process will reduce the incidence of tumor polyps.
Eat less red meat and barbecue
Red meat contains not only saturated fatty acids, which are harmful substances, but also increases the risk of obesity. Obesity is the culprit of many cancers. Smoked, marinated and roasted red meat easily contains nitrite, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic amines and other harmful substances, increasing the risk of cancer.
Reduce fat intake
Foods high in fat and cholesterol are not only the enemy of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, but also a hidden danger to intestinal health. For example, lard, fatty meat and animal offal, etc., can easily cause bowel cancer. Because these foods contain saturated fatty acids, it is a major health threat.
Active participation in exercise and more exercise have many health benefits. For the prevention of intestinal cancer, exercise can help increase intestinal motility, help excreta pass through the intestine, reduce the accumulation of harmful substances in the intestine, and reduce the incidence of cancer.
Trying to quit smoking and nicotine in alcohol can cause irritation in the intestine, which can cause colorectal cancer. The stimulation of the intestine by alcohol is also a major factor inducing intestinal cancer.
Colorectal cancer screening guidance recommends typical symptoms: changes in stool habits, early symptoms of bloody stool colorectal cancer are not obvious, or only a loss of appetite, fecal occult blood, etc. As the cancer develops, the symptoms gradually appear, manifested as changes in bowel habits, abdominal pain , Blood in the stool, weight loss, etc. It is often mistaken for “hemorrhoids.”
What to check for bowel cancer?
Recommended examination: colonoscopy, anal finger examination, colorectal cancer susceptibility genetic testing High-risk groups: 1. People who have long-term intake of high-fat, high-protein, high-calorie foods; 2. People over 40 years of age, long-term alcohol and oil Fried foods, etc. 3. People with chronic ulcerative colitis such as chronic ulcerative colitis, colorectal adenoma, familial colorectal adenoma, and colorectal polyps; 4. People with a family history of colorectal cancer.
Screening guidelines: Men and women between the ages of 45 and 75
Fecal immunochemical test (FIT) [annual];
Or high sensitivity guaiac fecal occult blood test (HSgFOBT) [annual];
Or multi-target fecal DNA testing (mt-sDNA) [every 3 years];
Or colonoscopy [every 10 years];
Or CT colonography (CTC) [every 5 years];
Or soft sigmoidoscopy (FS) [every 5 years]
Specific recommendations: Adults aged 45 years and older should be screened regularly based on patient preference and test accessibility, including high-sensitivity stool testing or colorectal structure (visual) examination. All positive results of non-colonoscopy screening tests should be performed in time for colonoscopy, as part of the screening process. Adults with good health and life expectancy greater than 10 years should continue to be screened to 75 years. Men and women aged 76-85 should make individualized screening decisions based on patient preferences, life expectancy, health status, and previous screening history. If you decide to continue the screening, you can proceed according to the above screening plan.